Hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia: how to avoid and control it?

Hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia: how to avoid and control it?


Our food decisions bring us closer or further away from emergencies that can be fatal to people with diabetes. Physical activity is important.

November 16, 2020 – 07:35

By Marta Belen Ortiz K. *
Clinical nutritionist / chef in food gastronomy

In honor of World Diabetes Day, which is celebrated every November 14, as a teacher and pioneer of diabetic gastronomy gastronomy seminars, I want to look at this topic on how to achieve normal blood sugar levels and avoid it. frequent changes in diet in people who suffer. In Ecuador, it is one of the ten leading causes of death, ranking first among both men and women. As a specialist in the dietary management of people with diabetes, whether type 1-2 or gestational (during pregnancy), I will always motivate them to avoid this pathology of prevention, which includes improving their daily food decisions, ie what everyone eats. the day is what contributes to his appearance, whether or not they have a family history that represents him.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be a chronic disease (long-term, the symptoms of which even go unnoticed by many, including excessive urine-polyuria, excessive thirst-polydipsia and abnormal increase due to diet-polyphagia) in which there may be several acute or chronic complications, including daily metabolic decompensation, which shows the scientific community a serious risk to the health of the patient suffering from them.

Among the acute complications (early onset) we have hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, which can be exacerbated by the clinical picture of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic condition, and which must be treated urgently in a health care home. In the case of hypoglycaemia (glucose below 70 mg / dl in the blood), this is the most common complication associated with the pharmacological treatment they receive on a daily basis. Anyone with oral treatment or doses of insulin may be at risk for hypoglycaemia; It is more common in patients taking insulin.

On the other hand, hyperglycaemia results from absolute or relative insulin deficiency and does not cause symptoms until the concentration is very high, usually above 300 mg / dl. However, I remind you that the goal of glucose or blood sugar in patients with DM2 (higher prevalence in the elderly population) is a maximum of 130 mg / dl on an empty stomach and no more than 180 mg / dl after meals, the value of which is considered for controlled; above it the patient is in hyperglycemia.

There are specific factors that also contribute to altered levels: food choices, sedentary lifestyles, forgetfulness, or simply not taking enough glucose-lowering medications. Given that these are reversible and preventable complications when treated in a timely manner, continuous monitoring and adequate interdisciplinary treatment is essential, with consultation with an internal medicine doctor or endocrinologist and a nutritionist.

It is recommended to eat 5 times and up to 6 times in people who take insulin to avoid hypoglycemia. Portions will depend on the energy needs you need, depending on your current nutritional status and whether or not you are metabolically controlled at the time you start. Also, the healthy fats you add to your meals and the low-fat lean proteins (bone-skin) maintain that there is no increase in blood sugar. We can add a portion of avocado, seeds, nuts or olive oil.

Recipe for sugar-free brownies
The healthy plate according to the My plate methodology is an effective nutritional educational strategy for patients with diabetes. Divide the plate into three parts: half of the plate fresh salads, ¼ part of the plate with complex carbohydrate (cereals: chickpeas, lentils, peas; tubers: sweet potatoes, cassava or starchy vegetables such as bananas / whole grains such as rice and quinoa) , ¼ part must be animal or vegetable protein. White and red meats and seafood. Avoid sausages and fried foods.


  • 1 cup almond flour
  • 1/2 cup powdered chocolate powder
  • 1 whole egg
  • 1/2 cup skim milk
  • 1/4 cup Olive oil
  • 1 tsp baking powder
  • Cinnamon powder
  • Liquid stevia (25 drops)
  • process
    -Heat the oven to 180 degrees, then mix all the solids: almond flour, chocolate powder, cinnamon and baking powder. Mix the egg, milk and oil and integrate the liquid ingredients with the solids until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Place in a pre-greased square form, type Pyrex, and place in the oven for 40 minutes at 200 degrees. (If desired, you can add pieces of nuts or cocoa beans). (I)

    * Member of the Guaya Nutritionists Association. IG: @mbonutricion. phone 098-460 6790. marthabelenortizc .nutritista @ gmail.com

    #Hyperglycaemia #hypoglycaemia #avoid #control