We explain what obesity is, the types that exist and the symptoms of this disease. In addition, its causes, consequences and treatment.
What is obesity?
the obesity It’s a disease of a chronic type and which has several possible origins, which consists of the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body. It is often considered an extreme and dangerous degree of excess weight, which far exceeds the normal limits of energy storage by lipid secretion, and jeopardizes the proper functioning of the body.
The problems of obesity go far beyond physical appearance, since the volume of body mass is so much that it costs the body much more work than usual to move or even function, since the muscles must make a huge effort (including the heart) and constant.
In addition, obesity is part of the metabolic syndrome whose consequences and derived diseases have made it the fifth leading cause of human death in the world. Annually, 2.8 million adults worldwide die from obesity-related causes.
Thus, even being medically considered an individual condition, certain possible hereditary patterns in obesity have been determined and is currently considered a public health problem in many western countries, especially with regard to minors.
The fight against obesity is complex and lacks quick solutions, much less in countries whose average diet abuses the consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, especially those from processed sugar.
See also: Malnutrition
types of obesity
Two types of obesity are commonly distinguished, according to their origins:
- Exogenous obesity. That which is the product of a poor or disordered diet, combined with little physical action that allows you to burn excess calories.
- Endogenous obesity. The one that is due to metabolic disorders of genetic origin, such as hormonal or pancreatic deficiencies, in turn due to other types of diseases.
The World Health Organization has set certain limits to define when simple fat becomes obesity or morbid fat. For this, the body mass index (BMI) is used, which is the squared ratio between the weight and height of an adult human being.
When this index is equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2, or when the abdominal circumference (where excess lipids are normally deposited) is greater than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women, we are facing a case of obesity.
causes of obesity
the obesity usually responds to metabolic causessuch as hormonal deficiencies (especially in the thyroid and gonads) that prevent fat burning due to more exercise and diet, or insulin deficiencies and those linked to sugar metabolism.
Although a disordered diet, rich in lipids and sugars, can make you fat, to the point of being considered obese, obesity is probably not caused by eating disordersas well as genetic factors.
Many obese people exercise regularly and obsessively control their diet, failing to reverse or “cure” their fat.
consequences of obesity
Obesity has a number of negative consequences on physical and psychological health, such as:
- Pre-diabetes. Obesity leads, in most cases, to uncontrolled blood glucose and carbohydrate metabolism, which usually degenerates into diabetes mellitus, seriously endangering health.
- cardiovascular risks. A heart weakened by the weight of fat, facing very dense blood (high in cholesterol) and forced to work excessively is a lethal combination, which leads to heart attacks, ischemic problems (stroke, arteriosclerosis) and other heart diseases.
- Self-image problems. Obese patients often have socialization issues or self-acceptance issues due to the brutal pressure our societies place on physical appearance and the canons of beauty, which often triggers obsessive eating behaviors and contributes to the worsening of the condition.
- Other Derived Problems. Obese people often suffer from sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, a tendency to certain forms of cancer, as well as skin and gastrointestinal diseases.
The treatment of obesity requires, above all, the determination of its causes. There is no simple procedure to combat it.and usually dosing of drugs that remedy the underlying hormonal or metabolic imbalance should be combined, along with significant lifestyle changes such as a controlled diet and regular exercise.
It must be understood that obesity It is usually not remedied by eating less or doing miracle dietswhich can also cause irreparable damage to an already weakened organism.